A commen critisicm against sex difference research is that the variation in cognitive performance within men and women is as large as or even larger than the variation between men and women. Here we seek to identify, how much of the within-group variation can be attributed to sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity. Currently, we are working on the development of adequate diagnostik tools for the identification of sex role orientation, which is of course not only subject to hormonal influences, but also to social norms. This research is done in collaboration with the work group for psychological assessment.